Bibliography of ISNR







Research overview of Marty Wuttke

journal
journal

Because of its wide scope of application, neurofeedback has met its share of the same healthy skepticism that every new approach claiming numerous benefits encounters. Nonetheless, twenty years of clinical experience support the therapy, and there are well-documented clinical reports concerning the effectiveness of neurofeedback for the following therapeutic applications.

Overview of Studies with Neurofeedback

Study of Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) and disregulation dates back to the early 1970's. The research covers a variety of problem areas. Over 1000 studies have been produced that are related to Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback). A listing of these studies has been published in book form available through the AAPB (the national association of biofeedback).

The largest amount of research has been done in three areas: epilepsy, addictions, and ADD/ADHD. In all three areas, studies have been replicated, and the data collected to date provide a significant and consistent picture of the potential usefulness of Neurofeedback as a clinical modality. The studies in these three areas also include research data on the role of Neurofeedback in improving sleep regulation, depression, self-image, IQ scores, and emotional control.

The outcome data from these studies, combined with a great deal of core research has provided the basis for innovative MD's, psychiatrists, and psychologists to apply this tool clinically with a solid and safe rationale. Brainwave training is a tool for improving self-regulation, such as attention and arousal, while also producing measurable neurological change. It can assist with organization and processing of information. No negative long-term side effects have been identified with biofeedback after almost thirty years. No scientific data or explanation has ever been developed or presented that contradicts in any way the results of the studies accumulated for Neurofeedback.

The nature of Neurofeedback therapy requires the patient and therapist to be intelligently engaged so as to adjust and modify ongoing treatment, for this technique to be optimal. Analogies are educational therapy and psychotherapy. Double blind studies are uniquely appropriate for testing drug effectiveness - but are not as well suited for multi-variate problems. For Neurofeedback therapy, the controlled outcome studies are the most appropriate method to determine efficacy. Additional controlled studies are currently under way - however, funding sources are limited. Some of the existing outcome studies have done a good job of ruling out placebo or other non-controlled effects.

Many of the other clinical applications - including therapy for PMS, brain injury and strokes, chronic pain, Tourette's Syndrome, migraines, and other emotional disorders are clinical extensions of the work that has already been done. Improvements in these conditions were often reported and recorded in existing studies for patients with comorbidity. In most cases, these outcomes were unexpected, and thus were simply reported. Many of the new clinical applications were developed as a byproduct of treating addiction, epilepsy, and ADD. Some research for these new applications is ongoing, but more formal research needs to be done. However, clinicians are finding that improvement in self-regulation affects a broad range of problems. Because of the safety involved, the relative low cost of the therapy and the ease of determining clinical results, clinicians are extending the use of this tool in improving self-regulation as it relates to other dysfunctions.




Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography



D. Corydon Hammond, PhD Professor, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation University of Utah School of Medicine Frank H. Duffy, M.D., Professor and Pediatric Neurologist at Harvard Medical School, stated in an editorial in the January, 2000 issue of the journal Clinical Electroencephalography that the scholarly literature suggests that neurofeedback should play a major therapeutic role in many difficult areas. "In my opinion, if any medication had demonstrated such a wide spectrum of efficacy it would be universally accepted and widely used" (p. v). "It is a field to be taken seriously by all" (p. vii).

An objective guideline for objectively evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback treatments:


La Vaque, T. J., Hammond, D. C., Trudeau, D., Monastra, V., Perry, J., Lehrer, P., Matheson, D., & Sherman, R. (2002). Template for developing guidelines for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of psychophysiological interventions. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(4), 273-281.

Epilepsy


Andrews, D. J., & Schonfeld, W. H. (1992). Predictive factors for controlling seizures using a behavioural approach. Seizure, 1(2), 111-116.
Ayers, M. E. (1988). Long-term clinical treatment follow-up of EEG neurofeedback for epilepsy. Epilepsy Support Program Newsletter, 3(2), 8-9.
Ayers, M. E. (1995). Long-term follow-up of EEG neurofeedback with absence seizures. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 309-310.
Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Daum, I., Wolf, P., & Canavan, A. (1991). Clinical psychological treatment of epileptic seizures: A controlled study. Chapter in A. Ehlers et al. (Eds.), Perspectives and Promises of Clinical Psychology. New York: Plenum Press.
Cott, A., Pavloski, R. P., & Black, A. H. (1979). Reducing epileptic seizures through operant conditioning of central nervous system activity: Procedural variables. Science, 203, 73-75.
Daum, I., Rockstroh, B., Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Canavan, A., Lutzenberger, W. (1993). Behavioral treatment of slow cortical potentials in intractable epilepsy: Neuropsychological predictors of outcome. Journal of Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 56 94-97.
Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Canavan, A., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., von Bulow, I., & Linden, A. (1990). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials and its role in epileptogenesis. Chapter in J. Carlson & R. Seifert (Eds.), Biobehavioral Self-Regulation and Health. New York: Plenum Press.
Elbertsen, B., & Klove, H. (1976). Clinical application of biofeedback training in epilepsy. Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy, 5, 133-144.
Engel, J., Troupin, A. S., Crandall, P. H., Sterman, M. B., & Wasterlain, C. G. (1982). Recent developments in the diagnosis and therapy of epilepsy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 97, 584-598.
Finley, W. W. (1976). Effects of sham-feedback following successful SMR training in an epileptic: A follow-up study. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1, 227-235.
Finley, W. W. (1977). Operant conditioning of the EEG in two patients with epilepsy: Methodologic and clinical considerations. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 12(2), 93-111.
Finley, W. W., Smith, H. A., & Etherton, M. D. (1975). Reduction of seizures and normalization of the EEG in a severe epileptic following sensorimotor biofeedback training: Preliminary study. Biological Psychiatry, 2, 189-203.
Fischer-Williams, M., & Clifford, B. C. (1988). Biofeedback treatment of patients with seizures: A pilot study of EEG feedback. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 70(1), 18.
Hanson, L. M., Trudeau, D. L., & Grace, D. L. (1996). Neurotherapy and drug therapy in combination for adult ADHD, personality disorder, and seizure disorder: A case report. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2, 6-14.
Kaplan, B. J. (1975). Biofeedback in epileptics: Equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to seizure reduction. Epilepsia, 16, 477-485.
Kotchoubey, B., Busch, S., Strehl, U., & Birbaumer, N. (1999). Changes in EEG power spectra during biofeedback of slow cortical potentials in epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 24(4), 213-233.
Kotchoubey, B., Strehl, U., Uhlmann, C., Holzapfel, S., Konig, M., Froscher, W., Blankenhorn, V., & Birbaumer, N. (2001). Modification of slow cortical potentials in patients with refractory epilepsy: A controlled outcome study. Epilepsia, 42(3), 406-416.
Kuhlman, W. N. (1978). EEG feedback training of epileptic patients: Clinical and electroencephalographic analysis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 45(6), 699-710.
Kuhlman, W. N., & Allison, T. (1977). EEG feedback training in the treatment of epilepsy: Some questions and some answers. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 12(2), 112-122.
Lantz, D., & Sterman, M. B. (1988). Neuropsychological assessment of subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy: Effects of EEG biofeedback training. Epilepsia, 29(2), 163-171.
Lubar, J. F., & Bahler, W. W. (1976). Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7, 77-104.
Lubar, J. F., Shabsin, H. S., Natelson, S. E. et al. (1981). EEG operant conditioning in intractible epileptics. Archives of Neurology, 38, 700-704.
Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1977). Use of biofeedback in the treatment of seizure disorders and hyperactivity. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 204-251.
Monderer, R. S., Harrison, D. M., & Haut, S. R. (2002). Review: Neurofeedback and epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 3, 214-218.
Quy, R. J., Hutt, S. J., & Forrest, S. (1979). Sensorimotor rhythm feedback training and epilepsy: Some methodological and conceptual issues. Biological Psychology, 9, 129-149.
Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Birbaumer, N., Wolf, P., Duchting-Roth, A., Reker, M., Daum, I.,
Lutzenberger, W., & Dichgans, J. (1993). Cortical self-regulation in patients with epilepsies. Epilepsy Research, 14. 63-72.
Rudrud, E., & Striefel, S. (1981). Eight to twelve hertz occipital EEG training with moderate and severely retarded epileptic individuals. Australian Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 7(4), 173-179.
Seifert, A. R.,& Lubar, J. F. (1975). Reduction of epileptic seizures through EEG biofeedback training. Biological Psychology, 3, 157-184.
Sterman, M. B., & Friar, L. (1972). Suppression of seizures in epileptics following sensorimotor EEG feedback training. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 33, 89-95.
Sterman, M. B. (1973a). Neurophysiological and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Seminars in Psychiatry, 5(4), 507-525.
Sterman, M. B. (1973b). Neurophysiological and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Chapter in L. Birk (Ed.), Biofeedback: Behavioral Medicine. New York: Grune & Stratton, pp. 147-165.
Sterman, M. B., Macdonald, L. R., & Stone, R. K. (1974). Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in man: Effects on epilepsy. Epilepsia, 15(3), 395-416.
Sterman, M. B. (1977). Sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning: Experimental and clinical effects. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(2), 63-92.
Sterman, M. B., & Macdonald, L. R. (1978). Effects of central cortical EEG feedback training on incidence of poorly controlled seizures. Epilepsia, 19(3), 207-222.
Sterman, M. B., & Shouse, M. N. (1980). Quantitative analysis of training, sleep EEG and clinical response to EEG operant conditioning in epileptics. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 49, 558-576.
Sterman, M. B. (1986). Epilepsy and its treatment with EEG feedback therapy. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 21-25.
Sterman, M. B. (1997).The challenge of EEG biofeedback in the treatment of epilepsy: A view from the trenches. Biofeedback, 25(1), 6-7, 20-21, 23.
Sterman, M. B. (2000). Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 45-55.
Sterman, M. B., & Lantz, D. (2001). Changes in lateralized memory performance in subjects with epilepsy following neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5, 63-72.
Sterman, M. B., & Egner, T. (2006). Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 21-36.
Strehl, U., Trevorrow, T., Veit, R., Hinterberger, T., Kotchoubey, B., Erb, M., & Birbaumer, N. (2006). Deactivation of brain areas during self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in seizure patients. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 85-94.
Swingle, P. G. (1998). Neurofeedback treatment of pseudo seizure disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 44(11), 1-4.
Tansey, M. A. (1985). The response of a case of petit mal epilepsy to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 81-84.
Tozzo, C.A., Elfner, L. F., & May Jr., J. G. (1988). Biofeedback and relaxation training in the control of epileptic seizures. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 6, 185-194.
Uhlmann, C., & Froscher, W. (2001). Biofeedback treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy: Changes in depression and control orientation. Seizure, 10(1), 34-38.
Upton, A. R., & Longmere, D. (1975). The effects of feedback on focal epileptic discharges in man: A preliminary report. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 2, 153-167.
Walker, J. E. (2008). Power spectral frequency and coherence abnormalities in patients with intractable epilepsy and their usefulness in long-term remediation of seizures using neurofeedback. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 39(4), 203-204.
Walker, J. E., & Kozlowski, G. P. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 163-176
Whitsett, S. F., Lubar, J. F., Holder, G. S., et al. (1982). A double-blind investigation of the relationship between seizure activity and the sleep EEG following EEG biofeedback training. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7, 193-209.
Wyler, A. R., Robbins, C. A., & Dodrill, C. B. (1979). EEG operant conditioning for control of epilepsy. Epilepsia, 20, 279-286.
Zhao, L., Liang, Z., Hu, G., & Wu, W. (2005). Nonlinear analysis in treatment of intractable epilepsy with EEG biofeedback. Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering, Medical, & Biological Science, 5, 4568-4571.

ADD/ADHD, Learning & Developmental Disabilities, & Academic-Cognitive Enhancement


Albert, A. O., Andrasik, F., Moore, J. L., & Dunn, B. R. (1998). Theta/beta training for attention, concentration and memory improvement in the geriatric population. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(2), 109. Abstract.
Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 39-43.
Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (1996). Neurotherapy and alert hypnosis in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Chapter in S. J. Lynn, I. Kirsch, & J. W. Rhue (Eds.), Casebook of Clinical Hypnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press, pp. 271-292.
Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000). Treating AD/HD with hypnosis and neurotherapy. Child Study Journal, 30(1), 25-42.
Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 3-20.
Becerra J, Fernndez T, Harmony T, Caballero MI, Garcia F, Fernandez-Bouzas A, Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcal· RA. (2006) "Follow-up study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo." Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 37 (3), 198-203.
Boyd, W. D., & Campbell, S. E. (1998). EEG biofeedback in the schools: The use of EEG biofeedback to treat ADHD in a school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 65-71.
Budzynski, T. H. (1996). Brain brightening: Can neurofeedback improve cognitive process? Biofeedback, 24(2), 14-17.
Carmody, D. P., Radvanski, D. C., Wadhwani, S., Sabo, J. J., & Vergara, L. (2001). EEG biofeedback training and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an elementary school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 5-27.
Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991). Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4(1), 66-67.
Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981). The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4), 204-208.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 4155-4159.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(1), 131-139.
Fehmi, L. G. (2007). Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of
Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 301-319.
Fehmi, L. G. (1978). EEG biofeedback, multichannel synchrony training, and attention. Chapter in A. A. Sugarman & R. E. Tarter (Eds.), Expanding Dimensions of Consciousness. New York: Springer.
Fehmi, L. G., & Selzer, F. A. (1980). Biofeedback and attention training. Chapter in S. Boorstein (Ed.), Transpersonal Psychotherapy. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books.
Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., Ricardo-Garcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 34(3), 145-150.
Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005). Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 35-46.
Foks, M. (2005). Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs. Educational & Child Psychology, 22(3), 67-77.
Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365-274.
Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 1-12.
Hansen, L. M., Trudeau, D., & Grace, L. (1996). Neurotherapy and drug therapy in combination for adult ADHD, personality disorder, and seizure. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(1), 6-14.
Hirshberg, L. M. (2007). Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7(4), 315-319.
Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982). Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7(2), 211-221.
Jacobs, E. H. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention, mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55-70.
Kaiser, D. A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 5-15.
Kirk, L. (2007). Neurofeedback protocols for subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 267-299.
Kotwal, D. B., Burns, W. J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1996). Computer-assisted cognitive training for ADHD: A case study. Behavior Modification, 20(1), 85-96.
Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., & Nikishena, I. S. (2007). Changes in EEG spectograms, event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization induced by relative beta training in ADHD children. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 3-11.
Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., Nildshena, I. S. (2005). ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55(1), 23-34.
Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, M., & Strehl, U. (2007). Neurofeedback for Children with ADHD: A Comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta Protocols. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32
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Levesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006). Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 394(3), 216-221.
Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(1), 35-49.
Loo, S., & Barkley, R. (2005). Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Neuropsychology, 12(2), 64-76.
Lubar, J. F. (1985). EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 26, 106-111
Lubar, J. F. (1995). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz (Ed.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide. New York, Guilford, 493-522.
Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide (Third Edition. New York, Guilford, 409-437.
Lubar, J. O., & Lubar, J. F. (1984). Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 9, 1-23.
Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293-306.
Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1977). Use of biofeedback in the treatment of seizure disorders and hyperactivity. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 204-251.
Lubar, J. F., Swartwood, M. O., Swartwood, J. N., & O’Donnell, P. H. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A., scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(1), 83-99.
Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N. (1982) Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance. Biological Psychology, 14, 99-111. McKnight, J. T., & Fehmi, L. G. (2001). Attention and neurofeedback synchrony training: Clinical results and their significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 45-62.
Monastra, V. J., (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Rationale and empirical foundation. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 55-82.
Monastra, V. J., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J. F., Gruzelier, J., & LaVaque, T. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(2), 95-114.
Monastra, V. J., Monastra, D. M., & George, S. (2002). The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(4), 231-249.
Mulholland, T. Goodman, D., & Boudrot, R. (1983). Attention and regulation of EEG alpha-attenuation responses. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(4), 585-600.
Nash, J. K. (2000). Treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with neurotherapy. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 30-37.
Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29-44.
Norris, S. L., Lee, C., Cea, J., & Burshteyn, D. (1998). Performance enhancement training effects on attention: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3(1), 19-25.
Orlando, P. C., & Rivera, R. O. (2004). Neurofeedback for elementary students with identified learning problems. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 5-19.
Othmer, S., Othmer, S. F., & Kaiser, D. A. (1999). EEG biofeedback: Training for AD/HD and related disruptive behavior disorders. Chapter in J. A. Incorvaia & B. F. Mark-Goldstein, & D. Tessmer (Eds.), Understanding, Diagnosing, & Treating AD/HD in Children and Adolescents. New York: Aronson, 235-297
Patrick, G. J. (1996). Improved neuronal regulation in ADHD: An application of 15 sessions of photic-driven EEG neurotherapy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(4), 27-36.
Pratt, R. R., Abel, H., & Skidmore, J. (1995). The effects of neurofeedback training with background music on EEG patterns of ADD and ADHD children. International Journal of Arts Medicine, 4(1), 24-31.
Pulvermuller, F., Mohr, B., Schleichert, H., & Veit, R. (2000). Operant conditioning of left-hemispheric slow cortical potentials and its effect on word processing. Biological Psychology, 53, 177-215.
Putnam, J. A., Othmer, S. F., Othmer, S., & Pollock, V. E. (2005). TOVA results following interhemispheric bipolar EEG training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 37-52.
Rasey, H. W., Lubar, J. E., McIntyre, A., Zoffuto, A. C., & Abbott, P. L. (1996). EEG biofeedback for the enhancement of attentional processing in normal college students. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(3), 15-21.
Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1990). Biofeedback: Evaluation and therapy in children with attentional dysfunction. Chapter in A. Rothenberger (Ed.), Brain and Behaviour in Child Psychiatry. Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 345-357.
Rossiter, T. R. (2004). The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of methodological issues. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29(2), 135-140.
Rossiter, T. R. (2005). The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part II. Replication. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29(4), 233-243.
Rossiter, T. (2002). Neurofeedback for AD/HD: A ratio feedback case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(3), 9-35.
Rossiter, T. R. (1998). Patient directed neurofeedback for ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 54-63.
Rossiter, T. R., & La Vaque, T. J. (1995). A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1, 48-59.
Russell, H. L., & Carter, J. L. (1997). EEG Driven Audio-Visual Stimulation Unit for Enhancing Cognitive Abilities of Learning Disordered Boys: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (SBIR), Contract number RA94130002.
Scheinbaum, S., Zecker, S., Newton, C. J., & Rosenfeld, P. (1995 ). A controlled study of EEG biofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit disorders. In "Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback" pp. 131-134.
Sheer, D. E. (1975). Biofeedback training of 40-Hz EEG and behavior. Chapter in N. Burch & H. I. Altshuler (Eds.), Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity. New York: Plenum.
Sheer, D. E. (1977). Biofeedback training of 40-Hz EEG and behavior. Chapter in J. Kamiya et al., Biofeedback and Self-Control 1976/1977. An Annual Review. Chicago: Aldine.
Shin, D. I., Lee, J. H., Lee, S. M., Kim, I. Y., & Kim, S. I. (2004). Neurofeedback training with virtual reality for inattention and impulsiveness. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(5), 519-526.
Shouse, M. N., & Lubar, J. F. (1979). Operant conditioning of EEG rhythms and Ritalin in the treatment of hyperkinesis. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 4(4), 299-311.
Stankus, T. (2008). Can the brain be trained? Comparing the literature on the use of EEG biofeedback/neurofeedback as an alternative or complementary therapy for attention deficit disorder (ADHD). Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 26(4), 20-56.
Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., and Birbaumer, N. (2006). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: A new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 118, 1530-1540.
Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2007). EEG neurofeedback treatment of patients with Down Syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 63-68.
Swingle, P. G. (2001). Parameters associated with rapid neurotherapeutic treatment of common ADD (CADD). Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 73-84.
Swingle, P. G. (1996). Sub threshold 10-Hz sound suppresses EEG theta: Clinical application for the potentiation of neurotherapeutic treatment of ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(1), 15-22.
Tansey, M. A. (1984). EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: Some effects on the neurological precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-99.
Tansey, M. A. (1985). Brainwave signatures--An index reflective of the brain=s functional neuroanatomy: Further findings on the effect of EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-89.
Tansey, M. A. (1990). Righting the rhythms of reason: EEG biofeedback training as a therapeutic modality in a clinical office setting. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 57-68.
Tansey, M. A. (1991). Wechsler (WISC-R) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via EEG biofeedback in a private practice setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 43, 147-153.
Tansey, M. A. (1993). Ten-year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade perceptually impaired class. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 18, 33-44.
Tansey, M. A., & Bruner, R. L. (1983). EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of 10-year old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(1), 25-37.
Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (1998). Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: Effectiveness in students with ADD. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(4), 243-263.
Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137-162.
Tinius, T. P., & Tinius, K. A. (2001). Changes after EEG biofeedback and cognitive retraining in adults with mild traumatic brain injury and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 27-44.
Valdez, M. (1985). Effects of biofeedback-assisted attention training in a college population. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 10(4), 315-324.
Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-85.
Wadhwani, S., Radvanski, D. C., & Carmody, D. P. (1998). Neurofeedback training in a case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3(1), 42-49.
Walker, J. E., & Norman, C. A. (2006). The neurophysiology of dyslexia: A selective review with implications for neurofeedback remediation and results of treatment in twelve consecutive patients. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(1), 45-55.
Warner, D.A., Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000). The efficacy of Barabasz’s alert hypnosis and neurotherapy on attentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Child Study Journal, 30(1), 43-49.
Xiong, Z., Shi, S., & Xu, H. (2005). A controlled study of the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 25(3), 368-370.

Anxiety Disorders, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, & Sleep Disorders


Bell, J. S. (1979). The use of EEG theta biofeedback in the treatment of a patient with sleep-onset insomnia. Biofeedback & Self Regulation, 4(3), 229-236.
Berner, I., Schabus, M., Wienerroither, T., & Klimesch, W. (2006). The significance of sigma neurofeedback training on sleep spindles and aspects of declarative memory. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(2), 97-114.
Brody, S., Rau, H., Kohler, F., Schupp, H., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1994). Slow cortical potential biofeedback and the startle reflex. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 19(1), 1-12.
Burti, L., & Siciliani, O. (1983). Increase in alpha-rhythm in anxious subjects using biofeedback: A preliminary study. Psichiatria Generale e dell=Eta Evolutiva, 21(2-4), 79-97.
Chisholm, R. C., DeGood, D. E., & Hartz, M. A. (1977). Effects of alpha feedback training on occipital EEG, heart rate, and experiential reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Psychophysiology, 14(2), 157-163.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). The temporal dynamics of electro encephalographic responses to alpha/theta neurofeedback training in healthy subjects. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(1), 43-57.
Egner, T., Strawson, E., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2002). EEG signature and phenomenology of alpha/theta neurofeedback training versus mock feedback. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(4), 261-270.
Feinstein, B., Sterman, M. B., & MacDonald, L. R. (1974). Effects of sensorimotor rhythm training on sleep. Sleep Research, 3, 134.
Fisher, S. (2007). Fpo2 and the regulation of fear. NeuroConnections Newsletter, January 2007, 13, 15-17. San Rafael, California; ISNR
Garrett, B. L., & Silver, M. P. (1976). The use of EMG and alpha biofeedback to relieve test anxiety in college students. Chapter in I. Wickramasekera (Ed.), Biofeedback, Behavior Therapy, and Hypnosis. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Glucek, B. C., & Stroebel, C. F. (1975). Biofeedback and meditation in the treatment of psychiatric illness. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16(4), 303-321.
Graap, K., Ready, D. J., Freides, D., Daniels, B., & Baltzell, D. (1997). EEG biofeedback treatment for Vietnam veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 65-66. [Conference Paper]
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 105-123.
Hardt, J. V., & Kamiya, J. (1978). Anxiety change through electroencephalographic alpha feedback seen only in high anxiety subjects. Science, 201, 79-81.
Hoedlmoser, K., Pecherstorfer, T., Gruber, E., Anderer, P., Doppelmayr, M., Klimesch, W., & Schabus, M. (2008). Instrumental conditioning of human sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and its impact on sleep as well as declarative learning. Sleep, 31(10), 1401-1408.
Holmes, D. S., Burish, T. G., & Frost, R. O. (1980). Effects of instructions and biofeedback in EEG-alpha production and the effects of EEG-alpha biofeedback training for controlled arousal in a subsequent stressful situation. Journal of Research in Personality, 14(2), 212-223.
Huang,-Storms, L., Bodenhamer-Davis, E., Davis, R., & Dunn, J. (2006). QEEG-guided neurofeedback for children with histories of abuse and neglect: Neurodevelopmental rationale and pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(4), 3-16.
Kirschbaum, J., & Gisti, E. (1973). Correlations of alpha percentage in EEG, alpha feedback, anxiety scores from MAS and MMQ. Archives fur Psychologie, 125(4), 263-273.
McKnight, J. T., & Fehmi, L. G. (2001). Attention and neurofeedback synchrony training: Clinical results and their significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 45-62.
Mills, G. K., & Solyom, L. (1974). Biofeedback of EEG alpha in the treatment of obsessive ruminations: An exploration. Journal of Behaviour Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 5, 37-41.
Moore, N. C. (2000). A review of EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 1-6.
Moore, J. P., Trudeau, D. L., Thuras, P. D., Rubin, Y., Stockley, H., & Dimond, T. (2000). Comparison of alpha-theta, alpha and EMG neurofeedback in the production of alpha-theta crossover and the occurrence of visualizations. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 29-42.
Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29-44.
Peniston, E. G., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1991). Alpha-theta brainwave neuro-feedback therapy for Vietnam veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Medical Psychotherapy, 4, 47-60.
Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.
Plotkin, W. B., & Rice, K. M. (1981). Biofeedback as a placebo: Anxiety reduction facilitated by training in either suppression or enhancement of alpha brainwaves. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 49, 590-596.
Putnam, J. (2000). The effects of brief, eyes-open alpha brain wave training with audio and video relaxation induction on the EEG of 77 Army reservists. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 17-28.
Raymond, J., Varney, C., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J.H. (2005). The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood. Brain Research & Cognitive Brain Research, 23(2-3), 287-292.
Rice, K. M., Blanchard, E. B., & Purcell, M. (1993). Biofeedback treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: Preliminary results. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 18, 93-105.
Sattlberger, E., & Thomas, J. E. (2000). Treatment of anxiety disorder with slow-wave suppression EEG feedback: A case study. Biofeedback, 28(4), 17-19.
Sittenfeld, P., Budzynski, T. H., & Stoyva, J. M. (1976). Differential shaping of EEG theta rhythms. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1, 31-46.
Sterman, M. B. (1977). Effects of sensorimotor EEG feedback on sleep and clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Chapter in J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.), Biofeedback and Behavior. New York: Plenum, pp. 167-200.
Sterman, M. B., Howe, R. D., & Macdonald, L. R. (1970). Facilitation of spindle-burst sleep by conditioning of electroencephalographic activity while awake. Science, 167, 1146-1148.
Thomas, J. E., & Sattlberger, B. A. (1997). Treatment of chronic anxiety disorder with neurotherapy: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(2), 14-19.
Valdez, M. (1988). A program of stress management in a college setting. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6(2), 43-54.
Vanathy, S., Sharma, P. S. V. N., & Kumar, K. B. (1998). The efficacy of alpha and theta neurofeedback training in treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25(2), 136-143.
Watson, C. G., Herder, J., & Passini, F. T. (1978). Alpha biofeedback therapy in alcoholics: An 18-month follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(2), 765-769.
Wuttke, A.M. (1992 June) Addiction, Awakening and EEG Biofeedback, Biofeedback, Volume 20, Number 2

Depression, Withdrawal, Hemispheric Asymmetry, Anger & Pre Menstrual Syndrome


Allen, J. B.., & Cavendar, J. H. (1996). Biofeedback alters EEG asymmetry. Psychophysiology, 33(suppl), S17, (Abstract).
Baehr, E., & Baehr, R. (1997). The use of brainwave biofeedback as an adjunctive therapeutic treatment for depression: Three case studies. Biofeedback, 25(1), 10-11.
Baehr, E., Miller, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (2004). Changes in frontal brain asymmetry associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A single case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(1), 29-42.
Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (1997). The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression: Two case studies. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 10-23.
Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (2001). Clinical use of an alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the treatment of mood disorders: Follow-up study one to five years post therapy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(4), 11-18.
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 105-123
Hammond, D. C. (2001). Neurofeedback treatment of depression with the Roshi. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 45-56.
Hammond, D. C. (2001). Neurofeedback training for anger control. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 98-103.
Hardman, E., Gruzelier, J., Chessman, K., Jones, C., Liddiard, D., Schleichert, H., & Birbaumer, N. (1997). Frontal interhemispheric asymmetry: Self-regulation and individual differences in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 221, 117-120.
Jenkins, P., & Moore, W. H. (1985).The effects of visual feedback on hemispheric alpha asymmetries and reported processing strategies: A single-subject experimental design. Brain & Cognition, 4(1), 47-58.
Kotchoubey, B., Schleichert, H., Lutzenberger, W., Anokhin, A. P., & Birbaumer, N. (1996). Self-regulation of interhemispheric asymmetry in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 215, 91-94.
Kumano, H., Horie, H., Shidara, T., Kuboki, T. et al. (1996). Treatment of a depressive disorder patient with EEG-driven photic stimulation. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(4), 323-334.
Putnam, J. A., (2001). EEG biofeedback on a female stroke patient with depression: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(3), 27-38.
Raymond, J., Varney, C., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 287-292.
Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Birbaumer, N. J., & Lutzenberger, W. (1990). Biofeedback-produced hemispheric asymmetry of slow cortical potentials and its behavioural effects. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 9, 151-165.
Rosenfeld, J. P. (2000). An EEG biofeedback protocol for affective disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 7-12.
Rosenfeld, J. P. (1997). EEG biofeedback of frontal alpha asymmetry in affective disorders. Biofeedback, 25(1), 8-25.
Rosenfeld, J. P., Baehr, E., Baehr, R., Gotlib, I. H., & Ranganath, C. (1996). Preliminary evidence that daily changes in frontal alpha asymmetry correlate with changes in affect in therapy sessions. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 23, 137-141.
Rosenfeld, J. P., Cha, G., Blair, T., & Gotlib, I. (1995). Operant biofeedback control of left-right frontal alpha power differences. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20, 241-258.
Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 685-693.
Schneider, F., Heimann, H., Mattes, R., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1992). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Depression. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 17, 203-214.
Uhlmann, C., & Froscher, W. (2001). Biofeedback treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy: Changes in depression and control orientation. Seizure, 10, 34-38.
Walker, J. E., Lawson, R., & Kozlowski, G. (2007). Current status of QEEG and neurofeedback in the treatment of depression. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 341-351.

Addictive Disorders


Burkett, V. S., Cummins, J. M., Dickson, R. M., & Skolnick, M. (2005). An open clinical trial utilizing real-time EEG operant conditioning as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of crack cocaine dependence. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2), 27-48.
deBeus, R. J. (2007). Quantitative electroencephalography-guided versus Scott/Peniston neurofeedback with substance abuse outpatients: A pilot study. Biofeedback, 35(4), 146-151.
Fahrion, S. L., Walters, E. D., Coyne, L., & Allen, T. (1992). Alterations in EEG amplitude, personality factors and brain electrical mapping after alpha theta brainwave training: A controlled case study of an alcoholic in recovery. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 16, 547-552.
Fahrion, S. L. (1995). Human potential and personal transformation. Subtle Energies, 6, 55-88.
Goldberg, R. J., et al. (1976). Alpha conditioning as an adjunct treatment for drug dependence: Part I. International Journal of Addiction, 11, 1085-1089.
Goldberg, R. J., et al. (1977). Alpha conditioning as an adjunct treatment for drug dependence: Part II. International Journal of Addiction, 12, 195-204.
Kelly, M. J. (1997). Native Americans, neurofeedback, and substance abuse theory: Three year outcome of alpha/theta neurofeedback training in the treatment of problem drinking among Dine= (Navajo) people. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 24-60.
Lamontague, Y., Hand, I., Annable, L., et al. (1975). Physiological and psychological effects of alpha and EMG feedback training with college drug users: A pilot study. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 20, 337-349.
Passini, F., Watson, C. G., Dehnel, L., Herder, J., & Watkins, B. (1977). Alpha wave biofeedback training therapy in alcoholics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(1), 292-299.
Peniston, E. G., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1989). Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcohol: Clinical & Experimental Research, 13(2), 271-279.
Peniston, E. G., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1991). Alcoholic personality and alpha-theta brainwave training. Medical Psychotherapy, 2, 37-55.
Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.
Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: An effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 685-693.
Schneider, F., Elbert, T., Heimann, H., Welker, A., Stetter, F., Mattes, R., Birbaumer, N., & Mann, K. (1993). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Alcohol dependency. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 18, 23-32.
Scott, W., & Kaiser, D. (1998). Augmenting chemical dependency treatment with neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3(1), 66.
Sokhadze, E. M., Cannon R. L., & Trudeau D. L. (2008) EEG biofeedback as a treatment for Substance Use Disorders: review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(1), 5- 43.
Sokhadze, T. M., Stewart, C. M., & Hollifield, M. (2007). Integrating cognitive neuroscience and cognitive behavioral treatment with neurofeedback therapy in drug addiction comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder: A conceptual review. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 13-44.
Sokhadze, T. M., Cannon, R. L., & Trudeau, D. L. (2008). EEG biofeedback as a treatment for substance use disorders: Review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 33(1), 1-28.
Trudeau, D. L. (2008) Brainwave biofeedback for additive disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(4), 181-183.
Trudeau, D. L. (2005). Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 125-136.
Trudeau, D. L. (2000). The treatment of addictive disorders by brain wave biofeedback: A review and suggestions for future research. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 13-22.
Watson, C. G., Herder, J., & Passini, F. T. (1978). Alpha biofeedback therapy in alcoholics: An 18-month follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(3), 765-769.
Wuttke, A.M. (1992 June) Addiction, Awakening and EEG Biofeedback, Biofeedback, Volume 20, Number 2

Brain Injury, Stroke, Coma, Spasticity, & Cerebral Palsy


Ayers, M. E. (1981). A report on a study of the utilization of electroencephalography for the treatment of cerebral vascular lesion syndromes. Chapter in L. Taylor, M. E. Ayers, & C. Tom (Eds.), Electromyometric Biofeedback Therapy. Los Angeles: Biofeedback and Advanced Therapy Institute, pp. 244-257.
Ayers, M. E. (1987). Electroencephalic neurofeedback and closed head injury of 250 individuals. Head Injury Frontiers. National Head Injury Foundation, 380-392.
Ayers, M. E. (1991). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback training and clinical psychotherapy for right hemispheric closed head injury. Paper presented at the National Head Injury Foundation, Los Angeles, 1991.
Ayers, M. E. (1995a). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback and physical therapy with pediatric stroke, age seven months to age fifteen, occurring prior to birth. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 318.
Ayers, M. E. (1995b). EEG neurofeedback to bring individuals out of level 2 coma. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 304-305.
Ayers, M. E. (1999). Assessing and treating open head trauma, coma, and stroke using real-time digital EEG neurofeedback. Chapter in J. R. Evans & A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback. New York: Academic Press, pp. 203-222.
Ayers, M. E. (2004). Neurofeedback for cerebral palsy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 93-94.
Bachers, A. (2004). Neurofeedback with cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 95-96.
Bearden, T. S., Cassisi, J. E., & Pineda, M. (2003). Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 28(3), 241-253.
Bounias, M., Laibow, R. E., Bonaly, A., & Stubblebine, A. N. (2001). EEG-neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury: Part 1: Typological classification of clinical syndromes. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 23-44.
Bounias, M., Laibow, R. E., Stubbelbine, A. N.,Sandground, H., & Bonaly, A. (2002). EEG-neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury Part 4: Duration of treatments as a function of both the initial load of clinical symptoms and the rate of rehabilitation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(1), 23-38.
Byers, A. P. (1995). Neurofeedback therapy for a mild head injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 22-37.
Doppelmayr, M., Nosko, H., Pecherstorfer, T., & Fink, A. (2007). An attempt to increase cognitive performance after stroke with neurofeedback. Biofeedback, 35(4), 126-130.
Duff, J. (2004). The usefulness of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy in the assessment and treatment of post-concussion syndrome. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 35(4), 198-209.
Ham, L. P., & Packard, R. C. (1996). A retrospective, follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in patients with posttraumatic headache. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(2), 93-104.
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback to improve physical balance, incontinence, and swallowing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 27-48.
Hammond, D. C. (2007). Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury? Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 57-62.
Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996a). Symptom changes in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury using EEG neurofeedback [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(3), 164.
Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996b). EEG neurofeedback in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(2), 6.
Keller, I. (2001). Neurofeedback therapy of attention deficits in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5, 19-32.
Laibow, R E., Stubblebine, A. N., Sandground, H.,& Bounias, M. (2001). EEG neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury: Part 2: Changes in EEG parameters versus rehabilitation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 45-71
Putnam, J. A., (2001). EEG biofeedback on a female stroke patient with depression: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(3), 27-38.
Rozelle, G. R., & Budzynski, T. H. (1995). Neurotherapy for stroke rehabilitation: A single case study. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 211-228.
Schoenberger, N. E., Shiflett, S. C., Esty, M. L., Ochs, L., & Matheis, R. J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274.
Sterman, M. B., Ayers, M. E., & Goodman, S. J. (1976). Case study: Effects of SMR suppression on EEG and motor patterns in a quadriplegic patient. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 340-341.
Thatcher, R. W. (2000). EEG operant conditioning (biofeedback) and traumatic brain injury. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 38-44.
Thornton, K. (2000). Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15(6), 1285-1296.
Thornton, K. (2001). Electrophysiology of auditory memory of paragraphs towards a projection/activation theory of the mind. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 45-72.
Thornton, K. (2002) Rehabilitation of Memory functioning with EEG Biofeedback, Neurorehabilitation, 17(1), 69-81
Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137-162.
Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2008). Efficacy of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Interventions of QEEG-guided biofeedback, computers, strategies, and medications. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 33(2), 101-124.
Tinius, T. P., & Tinius, K. A. (2001). Changes after EEG biofeedback and cognitive retraining in adults with mild traumatic brain injury and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 27-44.
Walker, J. E. (2007). A neurologistís experience with QEEG-guided neurofeedback following brain injury. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 353-361.
Wing, K. (2001). Effect of neurofeedback on motor recovery of a patient with brain injury: A case study and its implications for stroke rehabilitation. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 8(3), 45-53.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, & Autoimmune Dysfunction


Brown, V. W. (1995 ). Neurofeedback and Lyme’s Disease: A clinical application of the five phase model of CNS functional transformation and integration. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 60-73.
Donaldson, C. C. S., Sella, G. E., & Mueller, H. H. (1998). Fibromyalgia: A retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5 (6), 116-127.
Hammond, D. C. (2001). Treatment of chronic fatigue with neurofeedback and self-hypnosis. NeuroRehabilitation, 16, 295-300.
James, L. C., & Folen, R. A. (1996). EEG biofeedback as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome: A controlled case report. Behavioral Medicine, 22(2), 77-81.
Kayrian, S., Dursun, E., Ermutlu, N., Dursun, N., & Karamursel, S. (2007). Neurofeedback in fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology, 19(3), 47-53.
Mueller, H. H., Donaldson, C. C. S., Nelson, D. V., & Layman, M. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical outcomes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7), 933-952.
Packard, R. C., & Ham, L. R. (1995). EEG biofeedback in the treatment of Lyme Disease: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(3), 22-30.
Tansey, M. A. (1993). Neurofeedback and chronic fatigue syndrome: New findings with respect to diagnosis and treatment. CFIDS Chronicle, 9, 30-32.

Pain & Headache


Coger, R., & Werbach, M. (1975). Attention, anxiety, and the effects of learned enhancement of EEG alpha in chronic pain: A pilot study in biofeedback. Chapter in B. L. Drue, Jr. (Ed.), Pain Research and Treatment. New York: Academic Press.
Gannon, L., & Sternbach, R. A. (1971). Alpha enhancement as a treatment for pain: A case study. Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 2, 209-213.
Ham, L. P., & Packard, R. C. (1996). A retrospective, follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in patients with posttraumatic headache. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(2), 93-104.
Lehmann, D., Lang, W., & Debruyne, P. (1976). Controlled EEG alpha feedback training in normals and headache patients. Archives of Psychiatry, 221, 331-343.
Matthew, A., Mishm, H., & Kumamiah, V. (1987). Alpha feedback in the treatment of tension headache. Journal of Personality & Clinical Studies, 3(1), 17-22.
McKenzie, R., Ehrisman, W., Montgomery, P. S., & Barnes, R. H. (1974). The treatment of headache by means of electroencephalographic biofeedback. Headache, 13, 164-172.
Jensen, M. P., Grierson, C., Tracy-Smith, V., Bacigalupi, S. C., Othmer, S. (2007). Neurofeedback treatment for pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 45-53.
Pelletier, K. R., & Pepper, E. (1977). Developing a biofeedback model: Alpha EEG feedback as a means for pain control. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 361-371.
Rosenfeld, J. P., Dowman, R., Heinricher, N., & Silvia, R. (1984). Operantly controlled somatosensory evoked potentials: Specific effects on pain processes. Chapter in B. Rockstroh, T. Elbert, W. Lutzenberger, & N. Birbaumer (Eds.), Self-Regulation of the Brain and Behavior. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 164-179.
Rosenfeld, J. P., Silvia, R., Weitkunat, R., & Dowman, R. (1985). Operant control of human somatosensory evoked potentials alters experimental pain perception. Chapter in H. L. Fields, R. Dubner, & F. Cervero (Eds.), Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Volume 9: Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress on Pain. New York: Raven Press, 343-349.
Sime, A. (2004). Case study of trigeminal neuralgia using neurofeedback and peripheral biofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(1), 59-71.
Siniatchkin, M., Hierundar, A., Kropp, P., Kuhnert, R., Gerber, W-D., & Stephani, U. (2000). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in children with migraine: An exploratory study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 25(1), 13-32.
Tansey, M. A. (1991). A neurobiological treatment for migraine: The response of four cases of migraine to EEG biofeedback training. Headache Quarterly: Current Treatment & Research, 90-96.

Schizophrenia


Gruzelier, J. (2000). Self regulation of electrocortical activity in schizophrenia and schizotypy: A review. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 23-29.
Gruzelier, J., Hardman, E., Wild, J., Zaman, R., Nagy, A., & Hirsch, S. (1999). Learned control of interhemispheric slow potential negativity in schizophrenia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 34, 341-348.
Schneider, F., Rockstroh, B., Heimann, H. et al. (1992). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Schizophrenia. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 17, 277-292.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Hammond, D. C. (2003). QEEG-guided neurofeedback in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(2), 25-52.
Hammond, D. C. (2004). Treatment of the obsessional subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder with neurofeedback. Biofeedback, 32, 9-12.

Parkinson’s Dystonia


Thompson, M., & Thompson, L. (2002). Biofeedback for movement disorders (dystonia with Parkinson’s disease): Theory and preliminary results. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4), 51-70.

Tourette’s Syndrome


Tansey, M. A. (1986). A simple and a complex tic (Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome): Their response to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 4(2), 91-97.

Autism


Coben, R., & Pudolsky, I. (2007). Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 5-23.
Coben, R. (2007). Connectivity-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. Biofeedback, 35(4), 131-135.
Jarusiewicz, G. (2007). Use of neurofeedback with autistic spectrum disorders. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 321-339.
Jarusiewicz, B. (2002). Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4), 39-49.
Pineda, J. A., Brang, D., Futagaki, C., Hecht, E., Grichanik, M., Wood, L., Bacon, M., & Carey, S. (2007). Effects of neurofeedback training on action comprehension and imitation learning. Chapter in Puckhaber, H. L. (Ed.), New research in biofeedback. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 133-152.
Pineda JA, Brang D, Hecht E, Edwards L, Carey S, Bacon M, Futagaki C, Suk D, Tom J, Birnbaum C, Rork A.(2008). Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2. 557-581.
Scolnick, B. (2005). Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Aspergerís syndrome. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(2), 159-163.
Sichel, A. G., Fehmi, L. G., & Goldstein, D. M. (1995). Positive outcome with neurofeedback treatment of a case of mild autism. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 60-64.

Creativity & Optimal Functioning, Cognitive Decline with Aging

Albert, A. O., Andrasik, F., Moore, J. L., & Dunn, B. R. (1998). Theta/beta training for attention, concentration and memory improvement in the geriatric population. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(2), 109. Abstract.
Angelakis, E., Stathopoulou, S., Frymiare, J. L., Green, D. L., Lubar, J. F., & Kounios, J. (2007). EEG neurofeedback: A brief overview and an example of peak alpha frequency training for cognitive enhancement in the elderly. Clinical Neuropsychology, 21(1), 110-129.
Boynton, T. (2001). Applied research using alpha/theta training for enhancing creativity and well-being. Journal of Neurotherapy5(1-2), 5-18.
Budzynski, T., Budzynski, H. K., &l Tang, H-Y. (2007). Brain brightening: restoring the aging mind. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 231-265.
Budzynski, T. H. (1996). Brain brightening: Can neurofeedback improve cognitive process? Biofeedback, 24(2), 14-17.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). Ecological validity of neurofeedback: Modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance. NeuroReport, 14(9), 1221-1224.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 131-139.
Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). The temporal dynamics of electroencephalographic responses to alpha/theta neurofeedback training in healthy subjects. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(1), 43-57.
Gruzelier, J., Egner, T., & Vernon, D. (2006). Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. Progress in Brain Research, 159, 421-431.
Hanslmayer, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M., & Klimesch, W. (2005). Increasing individual upper alpha by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(1), 1-10.
Hoedlmoser, K., Pecherstorfer, T., Gruber, E., Anderer, P., Doppelmayr, M., Klimesch, W., & Schabus, M. (2008). Instrumental conditioning of human sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and its impact on sleep as well as declarative learning. Sleep, 31(10), 1401-1408.
Raymond, J., Sajid, I., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). Biofeedback and dance performance: A preliminary investigation. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(1), 65-74.
Vernon, D. J. (2005). Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 347-364.

Asthma


Tansey, M. A. (1992). EEG sensorimotor biofeedback training and the treatment of a six-year old asthmatic child. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 5,(2), 145-149.

Hypertension

Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29-44.

Dissociative Disorders


Manchester, C., Allen, T., & Tachiki, K. H. (1998). Treatment of dissociative identity disorder with neurotherapy and group self-exploration. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 40-53.
Mason, L. A., & Brownback, T. S. (2001). Optimal functioning training with EEG biofeedback for clinical populations: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 33-44.

Tinnitus


Gosepath, K., Nafe, B., Ziegler, E., & Mann, W. J. (2001). Neurofeedback training as a therapy for tinnitus. HNO (German), 49(1), 29-35.
Schenk, S., Lamm, K., Gundel, H., & Ladwig, K. H. (2005). Effects of neurofeedback-based EEG alpha and EEG beta training in patients with chronically decompensated tinnitus. HNO (German), 53(1), 29-38.
Weiler, E. W., Brill, K., Tachiki, K. H., & Schneider, D. (2001). Neurofeedback and quantitative electroencephography. International Journal of Tinnitus, 8(2), 87-93.

Criminals and Juvenile Offenders


Martin, G., & Johnson, C. L. (2005). The Boys Totem Town Neurofeedback Project: A pilot study of EEG biofeedback with incarcerated juvenile felons. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(3), 71-86.
Quirk, D. A. (1995). Composite biofeedback conditioning and dangerous offenders: III. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 44-54.
Smith, P. N., & Sams, M. W. (2005). Neurofeedback with juvenile offenders: A pilot study in the use of QEEG-based and analog-based remedial neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(3), 87-99.

Medical Conditions


Monjezi, S., & Lyle, R. R. (2006). Neurofeedback treatment of type I diabetes mellitus: Perceptions of quality of life and stabilization of insulin treatmentñTwo case studies. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(4),17-23.
Montgomery, P. S. (2006). Allergy pattern in the EEG. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(1), 89-92.

Adverse Reactions and Side Effects

Hammond, D. C., Stockdale, S., Hoffman, D., Ayers, M. E., & Nash, J. (2001). Adverse reactions and potential iatrogenic effects in neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(4), 57-69.
Hammond, D. C., & Kirk, L. (2008). First, do no harm: Adverse effects and the need for practice standards in neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(1), 79-88.
Lubar, J. F., Shabsin, H. S., Natelson, S. E. et al. (1981). EEG operant conditioning in intractible epileptics. Archives of Neurology, 38, 700-704.
Lubar, J. F. & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293-306.
Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1977). Use of biofeedback in the treatment of seizure disorders and hyperactivity. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 204-251.
Matthews, T. V. (2007). Neurofeedback overtraining and the vulnerable patient. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 63-66
Ochs, L. (2007). Comment on ìneurofeedback overtraining and the vulnerable patient. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 67-71.
Whitsett, S. F., Lubar, J. F., Holder, G. S., & Natelson, S. (1982). A double-blind investigation of the relationship between seizure activity and the sleep EEG following EEG biofeedback training. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7, 193-209.

Theoretical-Conceptual, Standards, & Review Articles


Abarbanel, A. (1995). Gates, states, rhythms, and resonances: The scientific basis of neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 15-38.
Butnik, S. M. (2005). Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5), 621-625.
Coben, R., & Myers, T. E. (2008). Connectivity theory of autism: Use of connectivity measures in assessing and treating autistic disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(2-3), 161-179.
Collura, T. (2008). Toward a coherent view of brain connectivity. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(2-3), 99-110.
Egner, T., Zech, T. F., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). The effects of neurofeedback training on the spectral topography of the electroencephalogram. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 2452-2460.
Egner, T., & Sterman, M. B. (2006). Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy: From basic rationale to practical application. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 6(2), 247-257.
Fehmi, L. G., & Collura, T. (2007). Effects of electrode placement upon EEG biofeedback training: The monopolar-bipolar controversy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 45-63.
Fehmi, L. G. (2007). Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 301-319.
Fehmi, L. G., & Sundor, A. (1989). The effects of electrode placement upon EEG biofeedback training: The monopolar-bipolar controversy. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 36(1-4), 23-33.
Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365-274.
Gruzelier, J., & Egner, T. (2005). Critical validation studies of neurofeedback. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 83-104.
Hammond, D. C., Walker, J., Hoffman, D., Lubar, J. F., Trudeau, D., Gurnee, R., & Horvat, J. (2004). Standards for the use of quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) in neurofeedback: A position paper of the International Society for Neuronal Regulation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(1), 5-27.
Hammond, D. C. (2005). Temporal lobes and their importance in neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 67-87.
Hammond, D. C. (2006). What is neurofeedback? Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(4), 25-36.
Hammond, D. C. (2007). Comprehensive neurofeedback bibliography: 2007 update. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 45-60.
Hirshberg, L. M. (2007). Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7(4), 315-319.
Holtmann, M., Stadler, C., Leins, U., Strehl, U., Birbaumer, N.,& Poustka, F. (2004). Neurofeedback for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence. Zeitschrift fur Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 32(3), 187-200.
Horvat, J. J. (2007). Coherence and the quirks of coherence/phase training: A clinical perspective. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 213-227.
Joffe, D. (2008). Connectivity assessment and training: A partial directed coherence approach. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(2-3), 111-122.
Kaiser, D. A. (2006). What is quantitative EEG? Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(4), 25-36.
Kaiser, D. A. (2008). Functional connectivity and aging: Comodulation and coherence differences. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12()2-3), 123-139.
Kirk, L. (2007). Neurofeedback protocols for subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 267-299.
Lubar, J. F. (1991). Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 16(3), 201-225.
Lubar, J. F. (1997). Neocortical dynamics: Implications for understanding the role of neurofeedback and related techniques for the enhancement of attention. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 22(2), 111-126.
Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide (Third Edition). New York, Guilford, 409-437.
Monastra, V. J. (2003). Clinical applications of electroencephalographic biofeedback. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide (Third Edition). New York, Guilford, 438-463.
Monastra, V. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit disorder: Rational and empirical foundation. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 53-82.
Monastra, V. J., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J. F., Gruzelier, J., & LaVaque, T. J. (2005). Electroencephalograpic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(2), 95-114.
Nelson, L. A. (2003). Neurotherapy and the challenge of empirical support: A call for a neurotherapy practice research network. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(2), 53-67.
Othmer, S. F., & Othmer, S. (2007). Interhemispheric EEG training: Clinical experience and conceptual models. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 109-135.
Othmer, S. (2005). Interhemispheric EEG training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2), 87-96.
Pineda, J. A., Silverman, D. S., Vankov, A., & Hestenes, J. (2003). Learning to control brain rhythms: making a brain-computer interface possible. Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions, 11(2), 181-184.
Rossiter, T. R. (2004). The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of methodological issues. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29(2), 135-140.
Sams, M. W., (1995). Mathematically derived frequency correlates in cerebral function: Theoretical and clinical implications for neurofeedback treatment. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 1-14.
Stankus, T. (2008). Can the brain be trained? Comparing the literature on the use of EEG biofeedback/neurofeedback as an alternative or complementary therapy for attention deficit disorder (ADHD). Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 26(4), 20-56.
Sterman, M. B., & Egner, T. (2006). Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 21-36.
Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., and Birbaumer, N. (2006). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: A new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 118, 1530-1540.
Strehl, U., Trevorrow, T., Veit, R., Hinterberger, T., Kotchoubey, B., Erb, M., & Birbaumer, N. (2006). Deactivation of brain areas during self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in seizure patients. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 85-94.
Thatcher, R. W. (2008). Z-score EEG biofeedback: Conceptual foundations. NeuroConnections Newsletter, April 2008, 9, 11, 20. San Rafael, California; ISNR
Vernon, D., Frick, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2004). Neurofeedback as a treatment for ADHD: A methodological review with implications for future research. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 53-82.
Walker, J. (2004). A neurologistís advice for mental health professionals on the use of QEEG and neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 97-103.
Walker, J. E., Kozlowski, G. P., & Lawson, R. (2007). A modular activation/coherence approach to evaluating clinical/QEEG correlations and for guiding neurofeedback training: Modular insufficiencies, modular excesses, disconnections, and hyperconnnections. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 25-44.

Slow Cortical Potential Neurofeedback


Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Canavan, A. G. M., & Rockstroh, B. (1990). Slow potentials of the cerebral cortex and behavior. Physiological Reviews, 70, 1-41.
Birbaumer, N., Roberts, L. E., Lutzenberger, W., Rockstroh, B., & Elbert, T. (1992). Area-specific self-regulation of slow cortical potentials on the saggital midline and its effects on behavior. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 84 353-361.
Elbert, T. (1980). Biofeedback of slow cortical potentials. Part I. Journal of Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 48, 293-301.
Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., Rockstroh, B., & Birbaumer, N. (1983). When regulation of slow brain potentials fails BA contribution to the psychophysiology of perceptual aberration and anhedonia. Advances in Biological Psychiatry, 13, 98-106.
Kotchoubey, B., Schleichert, H., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1997). A new method for self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in a timed paradigm. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 22(2), 77-93.
Kropp, P., Siniatchkin, M., & Gerber, W. D. (2002). On the pathophysiology of migraine: Links for Aempirically based treatment@ with neurofeedback. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(3), 203-213.
Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, N., & Strehl, U. (2007). Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: A comparison of SCP and theta/beta protocols. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32(2), 73-88.
Roberts, L. E., Birbaumer, N., Rockstroh, B., Lutzenberger, W., & Elbert, T. (1989). Self-report during feedback regulation of slow cortical potentials. Psychophysiology, 26(4), 392-403.
Rockstroh, B. (1987). Operant control of slow brain potentials. Chapter in J. N. Hengtgen, D. Hellhammer, & G. Huppmann (Eds.), Advanced Methods in Psychobiology. C. H. Hogrefe, pp. 179-190.
Rockstroh, B., Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., & Lutzenberger, W. (1984). Operant control of spontaneous EEG, evoked potentials and slow potentials of the brain. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 9(2), 139-160.
Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1982). The effects of slow cortical potentials on response speed. Psychophysiology, 19, 211-217.
Siniatchkin, M., Kropp, P., & Gerber, W-D. (2000). Neurofeedback: The significance of reinforcement and the search for an appropriate strategy for the success of self-regulation. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 25(3), 167-175.

LENS: Low Energy Neurofeedback System


Cripe, C. T. (2006). Effective use of LENS unit as an adjunct to cognitive neuro-developmental training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 79-87.
Donaldson, C. C. S., Sella, G. E., & Mueller, H. H. (1998). Fibromyalgia: A retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5 (6), 116-127.
Esty, M. L. (2006). Reflections on FMS treatment, research, and neurotherapy: Cautionary tales. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 63-68.
Hammond, D. C. (Ed.). LENS: The Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press.
Kravitz, H. M., Esty, M. L., Katz, R. S., & Fawcett, J. (2006). Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the Flexyx Neurotherapy System: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 41-58.
Larsen, S. (2006). The healing power of neurofeedback. Rochester, VT: The Healing Arts Press.
Larsen, S., Harrington, K., & Hicks, S. (2006). The LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System): A clinical outcomes study of one hundred patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 69-78.
Larsen, S., Larsen, R., Hammond, D. C., Sheppard, S., Ochs, L., Johnson, S., Adinaro, C., & Chapman, C. (2006). The LENS neurofeedback with animals. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 89-104.
Mueller, H. H., Donaldson, C. C. S., Nelson, D. V., & Layman, M. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical outcomes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7), 933-952.
Ochs, L. (2006). The Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS): Theory, background, and introduction. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 5-39.
Ochs, L. (2006). Comment on the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the Flexyx Neurotherapy System: A randomized controlled clinical trial, or how to go crazy over nearly nothing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 59-61.
Schoenberger, N. E., Shiflett, S. C., Esty, M. L., Ochs, L., & Matheis, R. J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274.

Hemoencephalography (HEG)


Carmen, J. A. (2004). Passive infrared hemoencephalography: Four years and 100 migraines. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(3), 23-51.
Coben, R., & Pudolsky, I. (2007). Infrared imaging and neurofeedback: Initial reliability and validity. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 3-13.
Friedes, D., & Aberbach, L. (2003). Exploring hemispheric differences in infrared brain emissions. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(3), 53-61.
Mize, W. (2004). HemoencephalographyñA new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Case report. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(3), 77-97.
Sherrill, R. (2004). Effects of hemoencephalography (HEG) training at three prefrontal locations using EEG ratios at Cz. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(3), 63-76.
Toomim, H., Mize, W., Kwong, P. C., Toomim, M., Marsh, R., Kozlowski, G. P., Kimball, M., & Remond, A. (2004). Intentional increase of cerebral blood oxygenation using hemoencephalography (HEG). Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(3), 5-21.

LORETA Neurofeedback


Cannon, R., & Lubar, J. (2007). EEG spectral power and coherence: Differentiating effects of spatial-specific neuro-operant learning (SSNOL) utilizing LORETA neurofeedback training in the anterior cingulate and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 25-44.
Cannon, R., Lubar, J., Congedo, M., Thornton, K., Towler, K., & Hutchens, T. (2007). The effects of neurofeedback training in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate gyrus. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117(3), 337-357.
Cannon, R., Lubar, J., Gerke, A., Thornton, K., Hutchens, T., & McCammon, V. (2006). EEG spectral-power and coherence: LORETA neurofeedback training in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(1), 5-31.
Congedo, M., & Joffe, D. (2007). Multichannel tomographic neurofeedback: Wave of the future? Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 85-107.
Congedo, M., Lubar, J. F., & Joffe, D. (2004). Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, 12(4), 387-397.

Z-Score Neurofeedback Training


Collura, T. F. (2008). Whole-head normalization using live Z-scores for connectivity training, Part 1. NeuroConnections, April 2008, 12, 15, 18-19. San Rafael, California; ISNR
Smith, M. (2008). A father finds a solution: Z-score training. NeuroConnections Newsletter, April 2008, 22, 24-25. San Rafael, California; ISNR
Thatcher, R. W. (2008). Z-score EEG biofeedback: Conceptual foundations. NeuroConnections Newsletter, April 2008, 9, 11, 20. San Rafael, California; ISNR
Disclaimer: All articles, documents and publications mentioned by or linked by this site or hosted at this site have been provided by The International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) as a public service. There is absolutely no endorsement by ISNR of any statement made in any of these documents, articles, or publications. Expect to see differences of opinion between authors. That is the essence of free and open scientific study.
Last Updated CRK 01/20/09











[1] Study about validity of qEEG





[2] Study about mild brain injury